Hittite reciprocal constructions in typological perspective
Guglielmo Inglese
(Università di Pavia/Università di Bergamo)
Saturday (April 22nd), 12:00-12:25
Lipsius 148

Reciprocal constructions have been a major topic in linguistic typology, including both synchronic (Frajzyngier & Curl 2000, König & Kokutani 2006, Nedjalkov et al. 2007, König & Gast 2008, Evans et al. 2011) and diachronic approaches to the subject (cf. Haas 2007, Plank 2008, Heine & Miyashita 2008, Vezzosi 2010, Kulikov 2014, Bar-Asher Siegal 2014). 

Based on this typological background, in this paper I propose a description of reciprocal constructions in Hittite. In the first place, I show how many reciprocal constructions are attested in Hittite and how they can be synchronically classified. Attention will be given to three main reciprocal strategies: middle verbal morphology, the reflexive particle =za, and three different polyptotic constructions, based on the iteration of the numeral šia- ‘one’, the demonstrative ka- ‘this’, and the noun ara- ‘friend’ respectively (cf. Hoffner & Melchert 2008 passim). Interestingly, these strategies differ in their syntax and semantics, and cover different sub-domains of reciprocity. 

On the second hand, I discuss how the synchronic differences among these strategies can be tracked down to their historical sources, and investigate the diachronic processes leading to their rise. Whereas most constructions comply with well-known paths of grammaticalization of reciprocal constructions (cf. Haas 2007, Heine & Miyashita 2008), the Hittite middle voice possibly provides evidence for a hitherto neglected diachronic extension, namely from anticausative to reciprocal. Finally, I discuss to what extent Hittite reciprocal constructions can be projected back into Proto-Indo-European (Krisch 1999, Kulikov 2014).

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